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Note making and Summarizing class 12 examples
Festivals have great value. The occasional celebration of festivals breaks the monotony of our day- to-day life and brings cheer to all. More importantly, festivals serve to remind us of our cultural values and traditions.
Eid-ul-Fitr, or Idd, is one of the two important Muslim festivals, celebrated all over the world. Observed on the first dny of Shawwal, the tenth month in the Islamic calendar, it marks the end of Ramadaan, which is a month of fasting and prayer. Unlike most other religious festivals, it is not a day of ‘rejoicing but a solemn day of thanks giving to ArUah, for the health and strength that He has bestowed on believers so that they can observe a whole month of fasting.
Muslims start the day by paying Sadaqut-ul-Fitr, an obligatory charity to the poor, so that they may enjoy the festival along with others. This charity is an obligation for every Muslim who has the means to help the poor. Thereafter, Muslims proceed to the Id-gaahs or mosques to offer collective prayers.
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- Value of Festivals:
- Break monotony of daily life
- Bring cheer to all
- Remind of cultural values and traditions
- Eid-ul-Fitr (Idd):
- Important Muslim festival worldwide
- Celebrated on the first day of Shawwal (tenth month in Islamic calendar)
- Marks the end of Ramadan (month of fasting and prayer)
- Not a day of rejoicing, but a solemn day of thanksgiving to Allah
- Acknowledgment for health and strength during a month of fasting
- Observances on Eid-ul-Fitr:
- Paying Sadaqut-ul-Fitr (obligatory charity to the poor)
- Charity enables the poor to enjoy the festival
- Obligation for every capable Muslim
- Proceed to Id-gaahs or mosques for collective prayers
Summary: Festivals hold significant value as they break the monotony of daily life, bringing cheer and serving as reminders of cultural values. Eid-ul-Fitr, a crucial Muslim festival observed globally, occurs on the first day of Shawwal, marking the end of Ramadan. Unlike other festivals, it is not a day of rejoicing but a solemn occasion for thanksgiving to Allah. Muslims start the day by giving obligatory charity (Sadaqut-ul-Fitr) to the poor, allowing them to partake in the festivities. This charity is a responsibility for every capable Muslim. The day involves collective prayers at Id-gaahs or mosques, emphasizing the spiritual and communal aspects of the celebration.
Note making exercises with answers pdf class 12
Fresh, natural looking food products sell, for which many manufacturers use preservatives to enhance the appearance of certain foods. Boiling, freezing, refrigeration, dehydration, pickling, pasteurization, vaccum and hypobaric packing are common ways to preserve food. Salt, sugar, vinegar and alcohol are natural preservatives that reduce the growth of bacteria. Yet these preservatives can also increase health risks. Sodium may increase blood pressure. Sugar may increase weight. Alcohol can increase the risk of liver disease.
Manufacturers also add chemical preservatives to many foods. These are artifical food preservatives. Artifical food preservatives keep food from spoiling on the shelves. They keep bacteria from growing in food after it is exposed to air, light, fungus or yeast. Some preservatives keep food from clumping or separating, and they help keep the texture consistent. Preservatives also can add nutrients lost in processing or include nutrients that the food does not normally contain. Flavours and colorings are added to foods to ensure that the food does not turn brown or to make food taste better to the consumer. Despite the benefits, preservatives can increase the risk of certain conditions, such as asthma and high blood pressure. The Food and Drug Administration ensures that all food additives are safe before allowing them into the food supply, but it is often hard to know the long-term effects of all the chemicals that are added to foods.
“Preserving Freshness: Balancing Appeal and Health in Food Products”
- Appearance Enhancement:
- Fresh, natural-looking food products are preferred by consumers
- Manufacturers use preservatives to enhance appearance
- Common Preservation Methods:
- Boiling, freezing, refrigeration, dehydration, pickling, pasteurization, vacuum, and hypobaric packing
- Natural preservatives: salt, sugar, vinegar, alcohol
- Reduce bacteria growth
- Health risks: sodium (blood pressure), sugar (weight), alcohol (liver disease)
- Artificial Food Preservatives:
- Added to prevent spoilage on shelves
- Inhibit bacteria growth after exposure to air, light, fungus, or yeast
- Prevent clumping, separation, and maintain consistent texture
- Add lost or lacking nutrients; include non-native nutrients
- Flavours and colorings to prevent browning and enhance taste
- Health Risks of Preservatives:
- Increased risk of conditions like asthma and high blood pressure
- Food and Drug Administration ensures safety before allowing additives
- Long-term effects of added chemicals are often uncertain
Summary: Fresh and natural-looking food products are appealing to consumers, leading manufacturers to use various preservatives. Common preservation methods include boiling, freezing, and others, while natural preservatives like salt, sugar, vinegar, and alcohol inhibit bacterial growth but may pose health risks. Artificial food preservatives are added to prevent spoilage and maintain texture, often introducing nutrients and enhancing taste. Despite benefits, preservatives can increase the risk of conditions like asthma and high blood pressure. The Food and Drug Administration ensures safety, but long-term effects of added chemicals remain uncertain.
Note making class 12 solved examples
For the younger people, travel is a part of their education; for the older people, it is an addition to their experience. A man ought to know the language of the country, which he wishes to visit for purposes of travel. Young men should travel under the supervision of a tutor or of a trustworthy servant who knows the language of the country concerned and who has visited that country. before. The tutor or the servant should be able to tell the young man what things are worth seeing in that country, what kind of acquaintances he should make, and what other benefits (such as some special training or learning) can be derived from travelling in that country.
People keep diaries when they make sea-voyages, but no diaries are maintained by those who travel on land. It is desirable to keep a diary while travelling on land also because there is much that needs to be recorded in the course of one’s travel.
A traveller should carry a guidebook describing the country, which he is visiting. He should not stay long in one city or town. While staying in a particular city or town, he should change his lodging from one part of the town to another. When abroad, he should avoid the company of his own countrymen. He should take his meals at places where he gets the opportunity of meeting a large number of people belonging to the country, which he is visiting. He should carry letters of recommendation to well-placed persons who may help him to see the places, which he desires to see.
“The Art of Travel: A Fusion of Education, Experience, and Cultural Immersion”
- Travel as Education:
- Younger people see travel as part of education
- Older individuals view it as an addition to experience
- Language Knowledge:
- Importance of knowing the language of the visited country
- Especially crucial for young travellers
- Supervision by a tutor or a trustworthy servant is recommended
- Guidance for Young Travellers:
- Tutor or servant should be familiar with the language and country
- Provide advice on places of interest, suitable acquaintances, and potential benefits
- Special emphasis on training or learning opportunities during travel
- Diaries and Record-Keeping:
- Diaries common for sea voyages, but lacking for land travel
- Advocates keeping a diary during land travel to record experiences
- Traveller’s Essentials:
- Carry a guidebook about the visited country
- Avoid prolonged stays in one city or town
- Change lodging within a location
- Suggests avoiding the company of fellow countrymen
- Encourages taking meals where interaction with locals is possible
- Networking and Recommendations:
- Carry letters of recommendation to well-placed individuals
- Facilitates access to desired places and experiences
Summary: The passage explores the dual nature of travel, serving as both education for the young and an experiential addition for the older generation. It emphasizes the importance of language knowledge, particularly for young travellers, recommending supervision by a tutor or a language-proficient servant. The guidance provided includes advice on places of interest, suitable acquaintances, and potential learning opportunities during travel. The passage also advocates the practice of keeping diaries during land travel, highlights essential elements for travellers, such as guidebooks and varied lodging. It stresses the importance of avoiding extended stays in one location, interacting with locals, and carrying letters of recommendation for networking with well-placed individuals to enhance the travel experience.
Note making and summary writing examples with answer
Prepare brief notes in outline form representing the main points of the passage below.
The sun, we might say, has a family of eight children that get all their heat and light from him. Each moves round the parent in a great circle. Some are close to the sun and some are far away. One of these eight children is our own earth.
So let us say, our Earth has seven sisters. The family of eight planets form what is called the solar system. The sun is the centre and is chief of the system, with the Earth and other planets moving round it. The children of the sun or the planets are called Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. The same sun warms them all, and the same stars shine upon them all, but they differ much from one another, and each one is very interesting.
This family of eight planets is moving each in its own path, millions and millions of miles away from the sun, so that you might think they were going off into space to join some other sun but they keep in their paths year after year and come back to their places .and have done so no one knows how long. Astronomers can calculate just where each one will be a year or a hundred years from now, or where each one of them was a hundred years ago. Now, close your eyes and see if you can imagine how the sun and his family look.
“Journey Through the Solar System: The Sun and Its Eight Planetary Offspring”
- Sun and Planetary Family:
- Sun has eight children (planets) orbiting around it
- Planets receive heat and light from the sun
- Earth is one of the eight children
- Planets move in great circles around the sun
- Solar System:
- Family of eight planets constitutes the solar system
- Sun is the central and chief entity
- Planets, including Earth, revolve around the sun
- Planetary Names:
- The eight planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
- All planets receive warmth and light from the same sun
- Each planet is unique and interesting in its own way
- Orbital Movements:
- Planets move in their own paths around the sun
- Paths are millions of miles away from the sun
- Despite the distance, planets maintain their orbits, returning year after year
- Predictability and Calculation:
- Astronomers can calculate future and past positions of each planet
- Orbits have been consistent for an unknown duration
- Implies a cyclical and predictable nature of planetary movements
Summary: The passage introduces the concept of the sun as the central figure in a family of eight planets, including Earth, forming the solar system. Describing the planets’ movements around the sun in great circles, it identifies each planet by name. Despite being millions of miles away, the planets, including Earth, maintain their paths, returning year after year. The predictability of their movements allows astronomers to calculate future and past positions, highlighting the enduring and cyclical nature of the solar system.
Note making examples with answers for class 12
Make notes in outline form on the main ideas of the passage given below:
These days the stress each and every person takes is too huge. It could be at their professional front or in their personal lives. There are too many issues to take care of. Each issue is quite different from the other but most of these issues are somehow related to money. If one is financially stable, the stress will surely be less.
The simple solution to most of our problems is saving money. Money does not only provide security for planned situations but also for unforeseen circumstances. Every person has their own dreams such as to own a big house, to give good education to children, to make it big in professional front and many more. Most of these can be achieved only through money. Saving money is most beneficial for health related issues or accidents which cannot be foreseen and may demand a lot of money. It is always good to be precautious for any such situation when one is in a good position financially. Savings need not always be huge amounts. Every penny saved does matter at the time of need. Saving money is not just for our future safety but also will be helpful for our near and dear ones. We cannot help them much if we have nothing in hand. Rather than feeling helpless then, it is better to be in a position to help them.
“Financial Wellness: Stress, Savings, and Securing the Future”
- Modern-day Stress:
- Pervasive stress in personal and professional lives
- Various issues to handle, often related to money
- Financial stability reduces overall stress
- Money as a Common Thread:
- Majority of issues linked to financial concerns
- Financial stability seen as a solution to various problems
- Significance of Saving Money:
- Saving money crucial for planned and unforeseen situations
- Provides security and peace of mind
- Contributes to achieving personal dreams and goals
- Health and Unforeseen Circumstances:
- Savings beneficial for health-related issues and accidents
- Acts as a precaution for unexpected financial demands
- Being financially stable allows for preparedness
- Role of Savings in Personal and Social Context:
- Savings not necessarily large amounts, every penny counts
- Ensures future safety and helps near and dear ones
- Ability to provide assistance in times of need
Summary: The passage discusses the prevalent stress in contemporary life, often tied to financial issues. It highlights the role of money as a common thread in various problems and emphasises the importance of financial stability in reducing stress. The significance of saving money is underlined, serving as a solution for both planned and unforeseen situations. The passage suggests that savings contribute to achieving personal dreams and goals, acting as a safety net for health-related issues and accidents. It concludes by emphasizing the social aspect of savings, noting that even small amounts matter and can be crucial for providing assistance to loved ones in times of need.