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*Measurement of Length and Motion Class 6 Notes**Measurement of Length and Motion Class 6 Notes*

*Measurement of Length and Motion Class 6 Notes*

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### Class 6 Chapter 5 Measurement of Length and Motion Notes and Solutions

**How Do We Measure?**

Deepa and her friends discuss various traditional ways of measuring lengths:

**Hardeep**mentions how his grandmother uses her arm’s length to measure cloth.**Padma**talks about farmers measuring their fields by counting strides.**Anish**adds that farmers sometimes use the length of their feet for measurement.

Curious, the friends decide to measure the length of their classroom table using handspans, a method they refer to as “balisht.” They quickly realize that the number of handspans varies for each person because their handspans are different sizes. This leads them to understand the need for standard units of measurement.

In ancient India, units like *angula* (finger width), *dhanusa*, and *yojana* were used for measurements. Craftspeople like carpenters and tailors still use traditional units like *angula*. Even in the Harappan Civilization, objects with scale markings have been found, suggesting the use of measurement tools.

**Standard Units**

To avoid confusion for trading and travelling, the need for standard units of measurement became apparent. Due to this International System of Units (SI units) is developed where the standard unit of length is the metre, symbolized as *m*.

**1 metre (m)**is divided into 100 equal parts, called**centimeters (cm)**.**1 centimetre (cm)**is further divided into 10 equal parts, called**millimetres (mm)**.**1 kilometre (km)**equals 1000 metres, used for measuring larger distances.

Some scales also have markings in **inches** (where 1 inch = 2.54 cm), a unit still used by some people today.

** Correct Way of Measuring Length**

When measuring lengths, it is important to use the appropriate scale and ensure proper technique:

**Using the Right Scale:**

- Use a 15-cm scale to measure small objects like a pencil.
- Use a metre scale or measuring tape for larger measurements like the height of a room.

**Proper Scale Placement:**

- Place the scale in contact with the object along its length.

**Correct Eye Position:**

- Ensure your eye is directly above the point you are measuring to avoid parallax errors.

**Measuring with Broken Scales:**

- If the scale’s ends are broken, use another full mark (like 1.0 cm) for measurement and subtract this from the other end’s reading.

**Writing Measurements Correctly:**

- Always leave a space between the number and the unit (e.g., 10 cm).
- Units like km, m, cm, and mm are written in lowercase, without a period after the symbol.

**Measuring the Length of a Curved Line**

Measuring curved lines requires a flexible measuring tape or a thread. For example, when Anish and his parents put up string lights on the arches of their verandah, they could have used a flexible measuring tape to measure the required length.

**Describing Position**

Understanding position requires using a reference point. For instance, when Deepa and her friends debate whether the garden is closer than the school, their conclusions vary because they each consider the distance from their own homes. If they had used a common reference point, like the bus stand, their observations would have been the same.

Similarly, Padma realizes the significance of reference points while reading kilometre stones on her way to Delhi. When a stone reads “Delhi 70 km,” it indicates her position is 70 km from Delhi, with Delhi as the reference point.

**Moving Things**

**Activity 5.2:**

**Objective:**Identify five objects in motion and five at rest.**Observation:**Record and justify how you determined whether an object was in motion or at rest.**Conclusion:**An object is in motion if its position changes with time relative to a reference point. If the position does not change, the object is at rest.

**Types of Motion**

**Linear Motion:**

- Dropping an eraser or an orange. Objects falling straight down or moving in a straight line demonstrate linear motion.

**Circular Motion:**

- Whirling an eraser tied to a thread. Objects moving in a circular path, like swings or merry-go-rounds, are the examples of circular motion.

**Oscillatory Motion:**

- Releasing an eraser hanging from a thread to observe to-and-fro motion, similar to a swing.
- Pressing and releasing a thin metal strip to observe up-and-down motion, which is another example of oscillatory motion.

**Activity 5.7:**

**Objective:** Visit a children’s park to observe and classify different types of motion as linear, circular, or oscillatory. Justify the classification based on the observed motion patterns.

**Steps to Follow:**

**Visit the Park:**- Go to a nearby children’s park where various playground equipment and activities are available.

**Observe Different Objects:**- Look around the park and observe different objects, play equipment, and activities that are in motion.
- Focus on swings, slides, merry-go-rounds, see-saws, and people running or walking.

**Classify the Motions:****Linear Motion:**Identify objects or people moving in straight paths.**Examples:**- Children running in a straight line.
- A slide where children slide straight down.

**Justification:**The motion follows a straight path from one point to another without any change in direction.

**Circular Motion:**Observe objects that are moving along a curved or circular path.**Examples:**- A merry-go-round rotating.
- A child cycling around a circular path.

**Justification:**The object follows a curved or circular trajectory, continuously changing direction while maintaining a fixed distance from the center.

**Oscillatory Motion:**Spot objects that move back and forth around a fixed point.**Examples:**- A swing moving to and fro.
- A see-saw moving up and down.

**Justification:**The motion involves a repetitive back-and-forth movement around a central point, similar to a pendulum.

**Record Your Observations:**- Make a table to record the observed motions and their classification:

Object/Activity | Type of Motion | Justification |
---|---|---|

Children running on track | Linear | Movement occurs in a straight path with no change in direction. |

Merry-go-round | Circular | Follows a circular path, with a constant change in direction. |

Swing | Oscillatory | Moves back and forth around a fixed point, like a pendulum. |

Slide | Linear | Children move straight down from top to bottom. |

See-saw | Oscillatory | Alternating up and down movement around a central pivot. |

### Class 6 Chapter 5 Measurement of Length and Motion questions and answers

1. **Match the Lengths with the Units:**

Column I | Column II |

Distance between Delhi and Lucknow | kilometre |

Thickness of a coin | millimetre |

Length of an eraser | centimetre |

Length of school ground | metre |

2. **True or False:**

(i) The motion of a car moving on a straight road is an example of linear motion. **[True]**

(ii) Any object which is changing its position with respect to a reference point with time is said to be in motion. **[True]**

(iii) 1 km = 100 cm **[False]***(Correct conversion: 1 km = 1000 m = 100,000 cm)*

3. **Which of the following is not a standard unit of measuring length?**

(iv) **Handspan***(Handspan is not a standard unit of measurement; the others are all standard units of length.)*

4. **Search for Different Scales or Measuring Tapes**

Create a table like this to record your observations:

Scale/Measuring Tape | Smallest Measurable Value |

15-cm ruler | 1 mm |

30-cm ruler | 1 mm |

Measuring tape (3 metres) | 1 mm |

Tailor’s measuring tape | 1 mm |

Kitchen scale (ruler) | 1 mm |

5. **Convert Distance from Kilometres to Metres**

- Distance between your school and home =
**1.5 km** - To convert to metres: 1.5 km=1.5×1000 m=1500 m1.5 \text{ km} = 1.5 \times 1000 \text{ m} = 1500 \text{ m}1.5 km=1.5×1000 m=1500 m

6. **Measure the Curved Part of the Base of a Tumbler or Bottle**

- Use a flexible measuring tape or a thread to measure the curved part of the base.
- Record the measurement (e.g., “The length of the curved part of the base is
**X cm**or**Y mm**“).

7. **Measure the Height of Your Friend**

Measure the height and express it in different units:

Unit | Measurement |

Metres (m) | e.g., 1.4 m |

Centimetres (cm) | e.g., 140 cm |

Millimetres (mm) | e.g., 1400 mm |

8. **Estimate Number of Coins to Cover Length of Notebook**

**Estimate:**Guess how many coins would be needed to cover the length of the notebook.**Measure:**Measure the length of one side of the notebook and the diameter of one coin using a 15-cm ruler.**Calculation:**- Length of notebook side (in cm) ÷ Diameter of one coin (in cm) = Number of coins needed

**Verification:**Compare your estimate with the actual calculated value.

9. **Examples of Different Types of Motion**

**Linear Motion:**

- A car moving on a straight road.
- A ball rolling down a straight slope.

**Circular Motion:**

- A ceiling fan in motion.
- A merry-go-round.

**Oscillatory Motion:**

- A pendulum swinging.
- A child on a swing.

10. **Categorizing Objects by Length Measurement Unit**

Create a table to list objects based on the appropriate measurement units:

Objects (in mm) | Objects (in cm) | Objects (in m) |

Thickness of a coin | Length of a pencil | Height of a door |

Diameter of a button | Width of a notebook | Length of a classroom |

Thickness of a credit card | Length of a spoon | Height of a basketball hoop |

11. **Types of Motion on a Rollercoaster Track**

For a ball starting from point A and moving through to point F on a rollercoaster track, the types of motion and corresponding track portions could be as follows:

**Linear Motion:**The ball moves in a straight line between points where the track is straight. For example, if the track has a straight section between points B and C, the motion here is linear.**Circular Motion:**The ball moves in a circular path around curved sections of the track. For example, between points C and D or E and F, where the track curves.**Oscillatory Motion:**Although not typical for a rollercoaster, if the ball oscillates back and forth in a section, it could exhibit oscillatory motion. However, this is less common in a rollercoaster context.

12. **Materials for Making a Metre Scale**

Tasneem should **not use stretchable rubber or cloth** to make a metre scale because:

**Stretchable Rubber:**It can stretch and change its length, leading to inaccurate measurements.**Cloth:**While not as stretchable as rubber, it can still bend or warp, causing inaccuracies.

**Plywood** and **steel** are more appropriate because they are rigid and maintain their shape, ensuring consistent and accurate measurements.